Application Notes: PDT110A
Proper Use of the PDT100,PDT110,and PDT120/PDT122 Neutron Pulse Monitoring Modules - 100A,110A,120A compact neutron monitoring modules designed for high radiation environments connect directly to neutron counters allowing quickly and easy interconnection from 1 to over 100 detectors for digital pulse counting measurements. This new generation of neutron monitoring modules allow new systems to be quickly configured and existing detector instruments to be easily upgraded. The charge sensitive amplifiers are designed for Helium-3,boron loaded, fission chamber, alpha and proton-recoil neutron detector operation. Multiple modules can be easily interconnected providing a single digital counting channel that will process pulse rates exceeding 5 MHz. Engineered in a compact ruggedized aluminum housing that interfaces directly to gas filled detectors, these modules provide an efficient clean solution in difficult environments.
Series 100A,110A and 120A modules provide customers with considerable versatility. This application notes provides users with a basic understanding in the proper using of the 100A ,110A ,120A and 122A instrument.
100A Series Bias Supply - The 100 series modules provide an equivalent feature set to the 110A modules but additionally contains an adjustable high voltage bias supply settable from 0 Volts to 2200 Volts. All modules are configured at the factory for power supply (+Vcc) setting of either +5 volt operation (default) or +12 volt operation.
High Voltage Bias Supply: 0 Volt to 2200 Volt Adjustment Span - The 100A produces high voltages and safety precautions should always be administered when using these instruments. Before applying power, make sure all cables are properly attached and modules are properly fastened to detectors. Do not apply power until modules are properly configured in your application ensuring that the power supply and all cables and detectors are properly connected to earth ground.
The internal bias voltage (high voltage generator) of each 100A series module channels its HV output to two connectors, the "HV OUT " SHV connector located on the top of the module and to the HV PIN ((with suitable filtering applied) located at the bottom of the module which attaches to the detector. The HV PIN interfaces to the gas filled detector and is not available to the operator once connected to a detector. Having the bias supply available at the SHV connector allows customers to use the 100A as the biasing of the 110A,120A,122A series modules, or other applications that might additionally require a HV bias supply. For low count rates, a 100A module can support several 110A modules (4-8).For high count rates (>50K counts/sec), a 100A module supports three 110A modules.
100A series modules are available in three basic configurations,100A (standard),100F (Fixed Voltage), and 100R (Remote control). The 100A is the standard configuration containing an internal twelve turn variable resistor (trim pot) allowing the user control of the high voltage bias supply over a range of 0 to 2200 volts by simply changing the setting on the trim pot. The 100F is nearly equivalent to the 100A,however the trim pot adjustment span is +/- 100 volts about a preset fixed voltage set at the factory. The fixed voltage is determined by the user and units can be shipped with any preset voltage setting between 100-2100 volts. The advantage of the 100F is improved noise, temperature and mechanical vibration performance. Since the adjustment range is +/-100 volts, setting the voltage to .1 volt resolution (i.e..1700.1 Volt!) is easily achievable.
100A and 100F Modules - Both 100A and 100F modules provide access to a internal trim pot via a hole labeled "HV ADJ " located on top of the module. A test point labeled "HV MON " allows users to monitor the high voltage setting as the trim pot is adjusted. When adjusting a 100A module, as the trim pot is adjusted from its lowest level to its highest level (turning the trim pot clockwise using an adjustment tool) a voltage at the "HV MON " test point is observed that spans from 0 to 2.2 volts resulting in a voltage at the "HV OUT "SHV connector spanning 0 to 2200 volts. The same approach is used for the 100F although the voltage adjustment span is greatly limited (+/-100 volts). All 100A units are shipped from the factory with an "HV OUT " setting of 1700 volts which corresponds to a voltage of 1.7 volts at the "HV MON " test point. When monitoring the "HV MON " test point with your DMM meter it is best to connect the LO (or ground) of your meter to the 100 module ground itself (via one of the connector cases) rather than at the power supply source ground. This avoids additional errors resulting from ground current returns. Connecting the meter LO to one of the connector grounds is best achieved using a alligator clip since a ground test point is not provided on the module itself.
100R Modules - The 100R provides remote operation, allowing the user to control the high voltage by applying a precision DC voltage from 0 to 2.2 volts to produce an high voltage output of 0 to 2200 volts. The 100R is shipped with an permanently attached cable (for the remote operation) terminated to a BNC. To control the bias supply voltage, apply a precision DC voltage to the BNC. Be aware that the HV generator of the 100 series is engineered for low noise and excellent long term stability operation. When using the 100R,best performance can only be achieved with use of a low noise and highly stable precision DC voltage. It is best to use a DC source that provide 50 part per million (50 PPM) stability performance and the noise performance should be in the 10 PPM region. Generally, power supply sources will not provide suitable results.
For safety, if the remote cable is not attached to a source, the 100R is designed to produce a low voltage (near zero volts) at "HV OUT ".The input resistance of the remote cable is 10K ohms, high enough that loading of your DC source should not affect performance. The input resistance of the cable alternatively provides suitable protection if you happen to connect the remote cable to a voltage greater than the power supply voltage (+Vcc). The 100R will not be damaged for voltages up to 20 volts applied to the remote cable.
In your application, after the cables and detector(s) have been properly attached to the 100A series modules, apply power to the module. Monitor the "HV MON " test point and adjust either the internal trim pot or the remote DC voltage to obtain the desired "HV OUT " voltage. Use a 5-1/2 digit voltmeter to obtain good monitoring information and allow you to simultaneously monitor noise and stability performance.
Basic Neutron Pulse Counting - The 100A,110A and 120A series of products provide accurate neutron pulse counting in a compact user friendly package. A 50nsec digital pulse from the connector labeled "TTL OUT " is produced each time a bipolar pulse (neutron event) exceeds the discriminator threshold. The 50nsec adjustable digital pulse (adjustability available only on the 110A and 120A modules) is achieved via a variable resistor located beneath a hole labeled "PW " on top of each module. A light-emitting-diode (LED) emits a flash, providing visual indications of detected pulses exceeding the discriminator setting. Control of sensitivity or threshold occurs via a 12 turn trim pot located beneath the hole identified as "THRES ADJ " on top of the module.
Pulse Observation - 100A,110A and 120A modules contain analog pre-amplification and bipolar amplifier electronics for pulse generation of detector charge events. The amplifier produces a 0 to 1 volt bipolar pulse which is feed to the "PULSE MON " test point. The output impedance of the "PULSE MON " test point is 10K ohms providing effective monitoring using an oscilloscope and impedance loading of the test point will not affect the performance of the amplifier. Amplifier gain is set with the "THRES ADJ " trim pot as identified above.
Using an oscilloscope, observe the bipolar amplifier pulse at the "PULSE MON " test point. To simplify the monitoring of the analog pulse, apply the "TTL OUT " digital pulse to the external trigger of the oscilloscope. Remember that each time a pulse is detected by the discriminator, the LED flashes. The LED provides a good troubleshooting aid when monitoring neutron events. With the "TTL OUT " connected to the external trigger of the oscilloscope, cable the "TTL OUT " to the input of a counter and begin counting pulses. Using the 100A module, you can easily increase and decrease the HV supply observing the change in the gain of the amplifier pulses. Use the HV bias as the amplifier course gain adjust and use the "THRES ADJ " trim pot as the amplifier fine gain adjust.
Determining the Proper HV Setting: Obtaining a Good HV Plateau Curve - Use a HV plateau to determine the proper HV setting for a Helum-3 neutron counter. To generate a plateau curve, collect a set of scalar counts ("TTL OUT " pulses) at fixed time intervals at a series of voltage steps. Plot the counts versus HV steps producing a plateau curve. The HV region above the knee of the plateau curve is generally where the detector is operated. Refer to the voltage setting recommended by the detector manufacturer.
Digital Pulse Routing: Digital Summing - 100A,110A,and 120A modules can be daisy-chained by connecting the "TTL OUT " pulses from one modules to the "TTL IN " inputs of another module. This connection sums the digital pulses in an OR ’ed fashion allowing several modules to be daisy-chained, providing a single pulse counting channel. A module interconnection kit (CKB) provides cables and connectors for daisy-chaining modules.
The "TTL OUT " Pulse - The "TTL OUT " uses a 50 ohm source and has been tested with good results using cable lengths in excess of 100 meters. The pulse width is preset at the factory to 50nS.However,on the 110A,and 120A modules, the pulse width can be varied from 40nSec to 500nsec by changing the setting of the trim pot located beneath the hole labeled "PW ADJ " on the top of the modules.
120A/122A Modules: Analog and Digital Summing - The 120A performs the same functions as a 110A or 100A modules related to neutron monitoring but is designed to operate with the 122A support module, a charge collection module.122A modules are easy to setup and operate. Charge events are collected by the 122 module and routed to the 120A module for amplification via the connector labeled "DETECTOR PULSE ".Each 120 module can support input from two to four 122A modules. This interconnection scheme reduces cost, simplifies cabling, allowing a series of detectors to be operated as a single 120A unit.122A modules have no adjustments, do not require a +Vcc (DC power supply) input, and provide the lowest cost solution, requiring only "HV IN " and "DETECTOR PULSE " connections. Note that each 122A module contains two "DETECTOR PULSE " connectors allowing 122A modules to be daisy--chained in a analog fashion. Such a scheme allows both analog and digital pulse summing. The 122A support module channels the analog pulse from the detector to the 120A via a cable that connects to the "DETECTOR PULSE ".Digital summing can occur simultaneously by summing the "TTL OUT " to the "TTL IN " between 120A modules as described above in the Digital Pulse Routing section. Typically, two to three 122A modules would be used for each 120 module.
Factory Options - Due to the wide variety of applications,100A,110A,and 120A modules are customized to a wide variety of needs. Some of the customized applications provided to our customers are state below. These modules provide enormous versatility, and can be customized to your application needs.
|Customers have requested cable options used to replace the test points. Having a cable replace the "PULSE MON " and or the "HV MON " allows users to more simply monitor the analog signal of the neutron event or the HV voltage by connecting directly to their monitoring equipment.|
|100A,110A,120A and 122A modules can be ordered from the factory to interface to gas filled detectors using HN connectors, SHV, or MHV connectors or direct cables.|
|Customized modules have been designed for extremely high radiation environments in excess of 100Mrad.|
|Low power customized modules are available for applications requiring extremely low power. For +5 Volts operation, supply current less than 2mA are available. For +15 Volt operation, supply current less the 1mA are available.|
PDT110A modules, at a height of 3.2 inches and a diameter of 1.55 inches, are our most popular neutron monitoring products. PDT110A modules provide simplicity of use yet versatility of operation. Each module contains a charge-sensitive preamplifier, an amplifier, and a discriminator. PDT110A modules interface directly to HN connectors, allowing direct connection to gas-filled detectors. When a neutron event occurs within the detector, the charge-sensitive preamplifier captures the signal resulting from the neutron event. The PDT110A further amplifies, integrates, and differentiates the signal. The discriminator produces a TTL pulse channeled to the output connector labeled "TTL OUT."
PDT110A modules provide versatility, allowing control of amplifier sensitivity and the TTL output pulse width. Additional features include digital pulse summing, an LED for visual indication of neutron event monitoring, and a test point for analog monitoring of the signal resulting from the neutron event.
Attach the PDT110A module directly to an HN connector of a gas-filled detector, attach the HV bias and output signal cables, connect the power cable, apply power and begin monitoring neutron events. It's really that simple! Each time a neutron event is detected within the gas-filled detector, PDT110A modules produce a 50 nS TTL pulse. For single detector applications, the setup of the instrument is efficient and simple, requiring only three cables:
PDT110A Cable set-up
Power supply cable "Vcc" (+5 volts or +12 volt are factory options.
High voltage bias supply input cable "HV IN" .
Output pulse cable to coincidence counter "TTL OUT"
The monitoring of neutron events begins by attaching a PDT110A to a gas-filled detector with a standard HN connector interface (most BF-3 and Helium-3 detectors have standard HN connectors), applying a +5 volt cable to the "+Vcc" power input, and connecting the bias cable to the "HV IN" input. Simply attach a 50-ohm coaxial cable to your monitoring equipment (coincidence counter) and the "TTL OUT" connector of the PDT110A. With your setup task complete, applying power begins the process of neutron event monitoring.
PDT110A modules are versatile, allowing for the summing of multiple detectors. The output pulse of any PDT110A module can be summed directly into another PDT110A module, thereby allowing digital pulse summing of several detectors.
A 12-turn trimpot controls the Amplifier sensitivity, "THRES ADJ"
A trimpot controls the "TTL OUT" pulse width, "PW ADJ"
An LED provides visual indication when neutron event detection occurs
PDT110A Input/Output Connector Description
To order the correct cable kits or specific customized cables, see our line of cable products .
"+Vcc" --- SMB Connector ---------- Uses +5V @35mA or +12V @20mA
"HV IN" -- SHV Connector ---------- Detector Bias supply: Max input 2200 Volts
"TTL IN" -- µCoax Receptacle ------- Standard TTL input signal used for digital pulse summing between PDT110A modules.
"TTL OUT" --SMA Connector ------- TTL output designed to interface to another PDT110A or to your coincidence counter.
Digital Pulse Summing:
Digital pulse summing allows users to sum the digital pulses between PDT110A modules. The "TTL OUT" pulse from one PDT110A module is cabled to the "TTL IN" input connector of a second PDT110A module. Each module sums the pulses of the "TTL IN" with the pulses obtained from the detector it is monitoring. If a TTL signal is not applied to the "TTL IN" input connector, no summing action occurs. The benefit of summing digital pulses is that only one signal cable route is needed to the neutron coincidence counter. The TTL pulse width is factory set to 50nS; however, the user has the ability to change the pulse width from 50nS to 500nS. The amplifier sensitivity can be changed by the user but is set at the factory to achieve good plateau results for a bias voltage setting of 1800 volts when using helium-3 detectors.
Preamplifier, Amplifier and Discriminator
During operation, when a neutron event occurs within the detector, the charge-sensitive preamplifier captures the signal resulting from the neutron event. The signal is further amplified, integrated and differentiated and a TTL pulse produced by the discriminator is delivered to the output connector labeled "TTL OUT." PDT110A modules provide additional versatility to the user by allowing user control of both the amplifier sensitivity and the pulse width. Generally, the factory setting of the sensitivity is sufficient to provide good HV plateau curves when 1800 volts is applied to the SHV "HV IN" input connector using helium-3 neutron detectors. However, when other detector types are used, or if the HV bias settings can not be varied, users can adjust the amplifier sensitivity and achieve good plateau results by adjusting the trimpot labeled "THRES ADJ." The "TTL OUT" digital pulse adjusts over a range of 50nS to 500nS by varying the trimpot located beneath the hole labeled "PW ADJ." Other features that PDT110 modules provide are digital pulse summing, an LED that provides a visual indication of detected events, and a test point labeled "PULSE MON," which allows users to view the analog pulse at the output of the amplifier.
Many applications require the "TTL OUT" signal to drive coaxial cables in excess of hundreds of meters. PDT series 100A, 110A and 120A modules provide a standard TTL output or a TTL output engineered with 50-ohm transmission line driver, capable of supporting extended cable lengths.
|Count Rate: >10M count per second|
|Pulse Pair Resolution: 400nS|
|Operating Voltage: for +5 Volts operation: +4.75 to +6 Volts; For +12 operations: 9 to 18 volts.|
|Operating current: No counts: 30mA typ; 100Kcounts: 40mA|
|Temperature: -55 to 85 Degrees Centigrade|
|Radiation Resistance: >1Mrad|
|Warranty: 1 Year|
PDT110A modules provide three input connectors: DETECTOR PIN, "TTL IN", and "+Vcc"
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS at the DETECTOR PIN
|Connector: Located at the bottom of module, the detector pin connects directly to any HN family type connector.|
|Threshold: PDT110A modules provide a nominal threshold of .02pCoulombs referred to the input . For increased sensitivity, contact the factory for desired specifications. For monitoring low level events, the threshold can be increased five-fold as a special order from the factory.|
|Threshold Control: Control variability is 20:1 using a 12-turn trimpot located beneath the hole labeled "THRES ADJ" shown on the decal on top of the module.|
|Stability: +/-5% of 25 degree Centigrade, 0 to 50 degree Centigrade.|
|Threshold Supply Voltage Coefficient: -1%/Volt typically|
|Noise: 1fCoulombs RMS (.001pCoulombs)|
Detector Pin Protection:
Input detector pin is protected up to 3000 volt spikes if the total applied energy is less than .6µJoules. (3000 volts discharged by 200pF capacitor)
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS at "TTL IN" Input
|Input Name: "TTL IN" as indicated on the top decal|
|Connector Type: Micro-coax female receptacle (miniature snap-on type)|
|Signal Characteristics: TTL input|
|Purpose: TTL signals applied to this input are logically OR'ed with the signal that is measured at the detector pin. If no signal is applied (the input is left open), no summing action occurs. Connecting +5V to this input will inhibit pulses from the "TTL OUT" connector.|
|Maximum Count rate: 10MHz|
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS at "+Vcc" Input (POWER INPUT)
- Input Name: "+Vcc " as indicated on the top decal
- Connector Type: SMB female receptacle (snap-on type)
- Signal Characteristics: Power input which accept either +5 volts or +12 volts as ordered from the factory -- the default is +5V
Typically 30mA for zero count rates, and for count rates in excess of 100,000 measured by the detector pin, the supply current is typically 40mA. For +5 volt operation, the voltage range is 4.75 volt to 6.5 volts. For +12 volt supply operation, the voltage range is 9 volts to 18 volts. For +12volt supplies, the typical current is 60% of the +5 volt typical specifications.
PDT110A Output Characteristics
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS at "TTL OUT" Connector
|Output Name: "TTL OUT" as indicated on the top decal|
|Connector Type: SMA female receptacle (screw on type)|
The "TTL OUT" signal consists of a transmission 50-ohm line drive designed to drive coaxial cables of long lengths, in excess of 100 meters. If driving long cables is not an issue. For systems requiring lower power, request a standard TTL output.
The "TTL OUT" signal connects directly to a coincidence counter or into the "TTL IN" input connector of another PDT110A module for cascaded operation.
|Pulse Resolution: Pulse pair resolution is 500nS.|
|Amplifier Count Rate: Maximum recommended count rate for accurate resolution should not exceed 1M counts.|
Input protected to 3000 volt spikes with total energy less than .6µJoules. (3000 volts discharged by 200pF capacitor)
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS at "TTL IN" Input
|Input Name: "TTL IN" as indicated on the top decal|
|Connector Type: Micro-coax female receptacle (miniature snap-on type)|
|Signal Characteristics: TTL input.|
TTL signals applied to this input are logically OR'ed with the signal measured at the detector pin. If no signal is applied (the input is left open), then no summing action occurs. Connecting +5V to this input will prevent pulses from leaving the "TTL OUT" connector.
|Maximum Count rate: 10MHz.|